Professor LEE Chi Ho, Paul

Prof Paul Lee

Clinical Associate Professor

  • M.B., B.S. (HKU), M.D. (HKU), MRCP (UK), FHKCP (Endocrinology), FHKAM (Medicine), FRCP (Edin)
Prof Paul Lee graduated in 2006 from the University of Hong Kong (HKU) and became an endocrinologist in 2013. In 2015, Prof Lee joined the Department of Medicine, HKU, as a Clinical Assistant Professor. He obtained the Croucher Foundation Fellowship in 2017 to pursue his overseas training at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Sydney. In 2022, he received his Doctor of Medicine degree from HKU and was awarded the Sir Patrick Manson Gold Medal. He became a Clinical Associate Professor in 2023.

Research Profile
Dr Lee’s research focuses on type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications, particularly in the contribution of adipokines and novel biomarkers that enhance risk stratification in the clinical management of diabetes and its complications. Dr Lee also has special interests in studying metabolic dysfunction-steatotic liver disease (MASLD) in T2D and initiated the Hong Kong West Diabetes NAFLD Cohort to investigate the risk factors of liver fibrosis progression in T2D. His research has resulted in authorship in over 110 peer-reviewed publications. He is an editorial board member of JCEM and Diabetes & Metabolism Journal. His research received the Investigator Award by the Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes in 2021, the Faculty Outstanding Research Output Award by HKU, the Young Investigator Outstanding Research Paper Award in 2022 and the Richard Yu Lectureship by the Hong Kong College of Physicians (HKCP) in 2023.

Key Offices
  1. Principal Investigator, The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, HKU
  2. Member, Asia-Pacific Diabetes and Obesity (APDO) Study Group
  3. Honorary Secretary, The Hong Kong Society of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Reproduction
  4. Honorary Secretary and Specialty Programme Director, Specialty Board in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism of Hong Kong region, Hong Kong College of Physicians Specialty Member, Expert panel of the subgroup on update on Reference Framework for diabetes care and hypertension care, Food and Health Bureau, HKSAR
  5. Member, Advisory group on Reference Framework for common musculoskeletal problems in primary care setting, Food and Health Bureau, HKSAR

Selected Publications
Original Research Articles in International Peer-reviewed Journals
  1. Mak JHC, Lui DTW, Fong CHY, Cheung CY, Wong Y, Lee ACH, Hoo RL, Xu A, Tan KCB, Lam KSL, Lee CH* (*Corresponding author) Serum thrombospondin-2 level changes with liver stiffness improvement in patients with type 2 diabetes Clinical Endocrinology 2023 Dec (Online ahead of print)
  2. Jia X, Song E, Liu Y, Chen J, Wan P, Hu Y, Ye D, Chakrabarti S, Mahajan H, George J, Yan S, Yu Y, Zhang G, Wang Y, Yang W, Wu L, Hua S, Lee CH, Li H, Jiang X, Lam KSL, Wang C, Xu A. Identification and multicentric validation of soluble CDCP1 as a robust serological biomarker for risk stratification of NASH in obese Chinese Cell Reports Medicine 2023 Nov; 21;4:101257
  3. Lam S, Lee CH, Fong CHY, Wong Y, Shiu SWM, Mak LY, Yuen MF, Lam KSL, Tan KCB. Serum Tsukushi level is associated with the severity of liver fibrosis independent of type 2 diabetes Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2023 Nov; 2:dgad650
  4. Lee CH*, Mak LY*, Tang EH*, Lui DTW, Li L, Wu T, Chan WL, Yuen MF, Lam KSL, Wong CKH (*Co-first authors) SGLT2i reduces risk of developing HCC in patients with co-existing T2D and CHB infection – A territory-wide cohort study in Hong Kong Hepatology 2023 Nov; 1;78:1569-1580
  5. Lee CH, Lui DTW, Cheung CYY, Fong CHY, Yuen MAA, Woo YC, Chow WS, Wong IY, Xu A, Lam KSL. Circulating AFABP, FGF21 and PEDF levels as prognostic biomarkers of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2023 Aug; 18;108:e799-806
  6. Lee CH, Lui DTW, Cheung CYY, Fong CHY, Yuen MAA, Chow WS, Xu A, Lam KSL. Circulating thrombospondin-2 level for identifying individuals with rapidly declining kidney function trajectory in type 2 diabetes – A prospective study of the Hong Kong West Diabetes Registry Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2023 Feb; 28:gfad034
  7. Diaz-Canestro C, Chen J, Liu Y, Han H, Wang Y, Honoré E, Lee CH, Lam KSL, Tse MA, Xu A. A machine learning algorithm integrating baseline serum proteomic signatures predicts exercise responsiveness in overweight males with prediabetes Cell Reports Medicine 2023 Feb; 21;4:100944
  8. Mak LY, Hui RW, Lee CH, Mao X, Cheung KS, Wong DK, Lui DTW, Fung J, Yuen MF, Seto WK. Glycaemic burden and the risk of adverse hepatic outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B with type 2 diabetes Hepatology 2023 Feb;17:606-618
  9. Lee CH, Lui DTW, Li RHW, Yuen MAA, Fong CHY, Leung APW, Chu JCM, Mak LLY, Lam TH, Woo J, Woo CY, Xu A, Tse HF, Tan KCB, Cheung BMY, Yuen MF, Lam KSL. Sequential algorithm to stratify liver fibrosis risk in overweight/obese metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease Frontiers in Endocrinology 2023 Jan; 13:1056562
  10. Lee CH*, Wu MZ*, Lui DTW, Fong CHY, Ren QW, Su SY, Yuen MMA, Chow WS, Huang JY, Xu A, Yiu KH, Lam KSL. (*Co-first authors) Prospective associations of circulating thrombospondin-2 level with heart failure hospitalization, left ventricular remodelling and diastolic function in type 2 diabetes Cardiovascular Diabetology 2022 Nov; 21:231
  11. Lee CH, Wu MZ, Lui FTW, Chan DSH, Fong CHY, Shiu SWM, Wong Y, Lee ACH, Lam JKY, Woo YC, Lam KSL, Yiu KH, Tan KCB. Comparison of serum ketone levels and cardiometabolic efficacy of dapagliflozin versus sitagliptin among insulin-treated Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes Diabetes & Metabolism Journal 2022 Nov; 46:843-854.
  12. Lee CH*, Gray V*, Teo JMN, Tam AR, Fong CHY, Lui DTW, Pang P, Chan KH, Hung IFN, Tan KCB, Ling GS. (*Co-first authors) Comparing the B and T cell-mediated immune responses in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving mRNA or inactivated COVID-19 vaccines Frontiers in Immunology 2022 Oct; 13:1018393
  13. Lee CH, Seto WK, Lui DTW, Fong CHY, Wan HY, Cheung CYY, Chow WS, Woo YC, Yuen MF, Xu A, Lam KSL. Circulating thrombospondin-2 as a novel fibrosis biomarker of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetes Diabetes Care 2021 Sep; 44:2089-2097
  14. Lee CH, Lui DTW, Cheung CYY, Woo YC, Fong CHY, Yuen MMA, Shea YF, Siu CWD, Chan KH, Chow WS, Lam KSL. Different glycaemia-related risk factors for incident Alzheimer’s Disease in men and women with type 2 diabetes – A sex-specific analysis of the Hong Kong Diabetes Database Diabetes-Metabolism Research and Reviews 2021 Sep;37:e3401
  15. Lee CH, Seto WK, Ieong K, Lui DTW, Fong CHY, Wan HY, Chow WS, Woo YC, Yuen MF, Lam KSL. Development of a non-invasive liver fibrosis score based on transient elastography for risk stratification in patients with type 2 diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism 2021; 36, 134-145
  16. Wu MZ*, Lee CH*, Chen Y, Yu SY, Yu YJ, Ren QW, Fong CHY, Wong PF, Tse HF, Lam KSL, Yiu KH. (*Co-first authors) Association between adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein with left ventricular remodelling and diastolic function in type 2 diabetes: a prospective echocardiography study Cardiovascular Diabetology 2020 Nov; 24: 197
  17. Lee CH, Lui DTW, Cheung CYY, Fong CHY, Yuen MMA, Chow WS, Woo YC, Xu A, Lam KSL. Higher circulating adiponectin concentrations predict incident cancer in type 2 diabetes – the Adiponectin Paradox Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020 Apr; 105:dgaa075
  18. Mak LY*, Lee CH*, Cheung KS, Wong DKH, Liu F, Hui RWH, Fung J, Xu A, Lam KSL, Yuen MF, Seto WK. (*Co-first authors) Association of adipokines with hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B patients on long-term nucleoside analogue Liver International 2019 Jul; 39:1217-1225
  19. Lee CH, Cheung CYY, Woo YC, Lui DTW, Yuen MMA, Fong CHY, Chow WS, Xu A, Lam KSL. Prospective associations of circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein levels with risks of renal outcomes and mortality in type 2 diabetes Diabetologia 2019 Jan; 62:169-177

Reviews and Commentaries in International Peer-reviewed Journals
  1. Lee CH, Lui DTW, Lam KSL. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes: An update Journal of Diabetes Investigation 2022 May; 13:930-940
  2. Lee CH. Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease – How relevant is this to primary care physicians and diabetologists? Primary Care Diabetes 2022 Apr; 16:245-251
  3. Lee CH, Lui DTW, Lam KSL. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, cardiovascular diseases and mortality Frontiers in Immunology 2021 Mar; 12:589206